Policy Considerations regarding the Integration of Lusophone West African Immigrant Populations
On January 23, 2012, Resolution No. 3 enacted the National Immigration Strategy for the island nation of Cabo Verde, the first of its kind in the country. As a buffer nation to Western Europe with a rapidly developing economy and good governance indicators, Cabo Verde is transitioning from a sending and transit country to a receiving nation for African mainlanders, especially from Guinea-Bissau. How effective are these immigration policies at managing these changing mobility patterns? Are immigrants successfully integrating into host communities? How might integration be handled more effectively? This policy briefing reports integration successes and failures from ethnographic research and considers the effectiveness of Cabo Verde’s National Immigration Strategy based on these findings. Cabo Verde’s immigration policy targets structural reforms such as education, healthcare, and housing, while additional socio-cultural strategies encourage coexistence among neighbours. Three years out, our study observed positive effects, while also suggesting additional reforms.
Åkesson, L. (2016). Multi‐sited Accumulation of Capital: Cape Verdean Returnees and Small‐scale Business. Global Networks, 16 (1): 112-129.
Alba, R., and Foner, N. (2014). Comparing immigrant integration in North America and Western Europe: How much do the grand narratives tell us? International Migration Review, 48 (s1): S263-S291.
Añón, M. J. (2016). The Fight against Discrimination and Access to Justice. A Path to Integration. Migraciones Internacionales, 8 (3): 221-254.
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46 (1): 5-34.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L. and Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55 (3): 303-332.
Bugre, M. and Hirsch, S. F. (2016). Migrant-led Integration as Peacebuilding: Forging New Alliances among Third Country Nationals in Malta. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 11 (3): 98-102.
Cabo Verde National Immigration Strategy. (2012). Estratégia Nacional de Imigração: Resolução No. 3/2012 de 23 de Janeiro. Cabo Verde: Unidade de Coordenação da Imigração [Lisa C. Smith, translator].
Carling, J. (2004). Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders. Population, Space and Place, 10 (2): 113-132.
COPS (Community Oriented Policing Services). (2012). Community Policing Defined. US Department of Justice. [Online]. [Accessed 22 November 2016]. Available from: https://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p157-pub.pdf.
Derose, K. P., Escarce, J. J. and Lurie, N. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care: Sources of Vulnerability. Health Affairs, 26 (5): 1258-1268.
Devillard, A., Bacchi, A. and Noack, M. (2015). A Survey on Migration Policies in West Africa. Vienna, Austria/Dakar, Senegal: International Centre for Migration Policy Development/ International Organization for Migration (Regional Office for West and Central Africa).
Entzinger, H. and Biezeveld, R. L. (2003). Benchmarking in Immigrant Integration. European Commission Report. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/e-library/documents/policies/legal-migration/pdf/general/benchmarking_final_en.pdf.
Epstein, J. L. (2010). School/family/community Partnerships: Caring for the Children We Share. Phi Delta Kappan, 92 (3): 81-96.
Erdal, M. B. and Oeppen, C. (2013). Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions between Integration and Transnationalism. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39 (6): 867-884.
Garefino, A. C. (2009). Behavioral and Academic Competencies Associated with English Language Learner Status, PhD thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Goodman, S. W. (2010). Integration Requirements for Integration's Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36 (5): 753-772.
Gossling, S., and Schultz, U. (2005). Tourism-related Migration in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Tourism Geographies, 7 (1): 43-62.
Harden, S., B., McDaniel, P., N., Smith, H., A., Zimmern, E. and Brown, E., B. (2015). Speaking of Change in Charlotte, North Carolina: How Museums Can Shape Immigrant Receptivity in a Community Navigating Rapid Cultural Change. Museums & Social Issues, 10 (2): 117-133.
Hayes, S. (2016). Educational Considerations for Refugee and Migrant Children in the United States. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 11 (3): 120-125.
Hayes, S., Lundy, B. D. and Hallward, M. C. (2016). Conflict-Induced Migration and the Refugee Crisis: Global and Local Perspectives from Peacebuilding and Development. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 11 (3): 1-7.
Joppe, M. (2012). Migrant Workers: Challenges and Opportunities in Addressing Tourism Labor Shortages. Tourism Management, 33 (3): 662-671.
Jung, P. (2015). Migration, Remittances and Development: A case study of Senegalese labour migrants on the island of Boa Vista, Cape Verde. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, 29: 77-101.
Kallenback, S., Lee, K. S., Downs-Karkos, S. and Taylor, M. B. (2013). Adult Education and Immigrant Integration: Networks for Integrating New Americans (NINA) Theoretical Framework. World Education. Available from: https://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/NINA_theoretical-framework.pdf.
Kauppinen, T. M., Skifter Anderson, H. and Hedman, L. (2015). Determinants of Immigrants’ Entry to Homeownership in Three Nordic Capital City Regions. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 97 (4): 343-362.
Kingsley, P. (2016, April 20). Migration Between Poor Countries Rising Faster than to Rich Ones – Study. The Guardian.
Lundy, B. D. (2012). The Involution of Democracy in Lusophone West Africa. In: A. G. Adebayo (ed.) Managing Conflicts in Africa’s Democratic Transitions (pp. 119-140, 191), Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Lundy, B. D. (2016, 11 February). Transnational ties that bind? The Making and Unmaking of Lusophone West Africa. Year of the Portuguese Speaking World Spring Conference, Confluences and Divergences in the Portuguese Speaking World [paper]. Kennesaw, GA.
Lundy, B. D. and Lartey, K. (N.d.a). Deciding to Stay: Labour Migration within Lusophone West Africa. Unpublished manuscript.
Lundy, B. D. and Lartey, K. (N.d.b). Measuring Community Integration of Lusophone West African Immigrant Populations through Needs Assessment, Human Security, and Realistic Conflict Theory. Unpublished manuscript.
Lundy, B. D., Patterson, M. and O’Neill, A. (2017). Drivers and Deterrents of Entrepreneurial Enterprise in the Risk Prone Global South. Economic Anthropology, 4 (1): 65-81.
Marcelino, P. F. (2016). The African ‘Other’ in the Cape Verde Islands: Interaction, Integration and the Forging of an Immigration Policy. In: J. Knörr and C. Kohl (eds.) The Upper Guinea Coast in Global Perspective (pp. 116-134), New York: Berghahn Books.
Maroto, M. and Aylsworth, L. (2016). Catching Up or Falling Behind? Continuing Wealth Disparities for Immigrants to Canada by Region of Origin and Cohort. Canadian Review of Sociology, 53 (4): 374-408.
Mason, M. (2010). Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11 (3): 1-14.
OECD/European Union (2015). Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2015: Settling In. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/ 9789264234024-en.
Padilla, A. M. and Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, Social Identity, and Social Cognition: A New Perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25 (1): 35-55.
Pardue, D. (2016). ‘Cash or Body’: Lessons on Space and Language from Cape Verdean Rappers and Their Beefs. Popular Music and Society, 39 (3): 332-345.
Suphanchaimat, R., Kantamaturapoi, K., Putthasri, W. and Prakongsai, P. (2015). Challenges in the Provision of Healthcare Services for Migrants: A Systematic Review through Providers’ lens. BMC Health Services Research, 15 (1), 390.
Thomas, R. L., Chiarelli-Helminiak, C. M., Ferraj, B. and Barrette, K. (2016). Building Relationships and Facilitating Immigrant Community Integration: An Evaluation of a Cultural Navigator Program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 55: 77-84.
UN News Centre. (2007, 14 June). UN Advocate Salutes Cape Verde’s Graduation from Category of Poorest States. UN News Service. Available from: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22918andCr=capeandCr1=verde.
U.S. Department of State. (2016). Cabo Verde. Available from: https://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2016/vol1/253247.htm.
Valdigem, A. (2010). Boavista get to the streets for peace after a brutal murder. GuinGuinBali: All About Africa. Available from: http://www.guinguinbali.com/ index.php?lang=enandmod=newsandtask=view_newsandcat=2andid=363.
Zoettl, P. A. (2016). Morabeza, Cash or Body: Prison, Violence and the State in Praia, Cape Verde. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 19 (4): 391-406.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Copyright © 2011-2016 Border Crossing / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.