Uneven Temporalities of Modernity: The Portrayal of Modernisation in E. M. Forster’s Howards End and Füruzan’s 47'liler

Burcu Alkan


Arguably a cultural consequence of the extensive societal transformation that is modernisation, the novel is a literary form that bears witness to, embodies and reveals its extent. Each literary tradition has its own version of the modern novel that seeks to make sense of the complexities of such an immense force. This paper compares two novels, E. M. Forster’s Howards End (1910) and Füruzan’s 47’liler (1974, Generation of ’47), in order to explore some of the similarities and differences between the English and Turkish literary responses to modernisation. The incentive for such an uncommon comparison comes from the uneven temporalities of the modernisation process in varying geographies that accentuate unique probabilities alongside general patterns. By choosing two temporally disparate novels from cultures that have differing experiences with modernity, it aims to challenge conventional approaches and encourage alternative perspectives in both literary traditions.


Modernity and the Novel, Portraying Modernisation, E. M. Forster’s Howards End, Füruzan’s 47’liler

Full Text:




Althusser, L. (1971). “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses”. In: Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Aronowitz, S. (1972). “Introduction”. In: M. Horkheimer. Critical Theory. New York: Herder & Herder.

Belge, M. (1998). Edebiyat Üstüne Yazılar. Istanbul: İletişim.

Benjamin, W. (1999). Illuminations. London: Pimlico.

Black, C. (1966). Dynamics of Modernization: A Study in Comparative History. New York: Harper & Row.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). “The Forms of Capital”. In: J. G. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press.

Conrad J. (1994). Heart of Darkness. London: Penguin.

Forster, E. M. (1995). Howards End. Bath: The Bath Press.

Füruzan. (2002). 47’liler. Istanbul: YKY.

Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. (1985). “Modernity – An Incomplete Project”. In: H. Foster (ed.) Postmodern Culture. London: Pluto Press.

Kandiyoti, D. (1997). “Gendering the Modern: On Missing Dimensions in the Study of Turkish Modernity”. In: S. Bozdoğan and R. Kasaba (eds.) Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Kolars, J. (1973). “The Integration of the Villager into the National Life of Turkey”. In: K. Karpat (ed.) Social Change and Politics in Turkey: A Structural Historical Analysis. Leiden: Brill.

Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1998). The Communist Manifesto: A Modern Edition. London: Verso.

Meriç, C. (1975). “47liler yahut bir Romanın Düşündürdükleri”. Hisar, 138: 6-8.

Said. E. W. (1994). Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage.

Trilling, L. (1965). E. M. Forster. New York: New Directions Books.

Williams, P. (2000). “‘Simultaneous Uncontemporaneities’: Theorising Modernism and Empire”. In: Booth, H. J. and Rigby, N. (eds.) Modernism and Empire. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Williams, R. (1993). The Country and The City. London: The Hogarth Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2011-2016 Border Crossing / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us